The Eye, did it Evolve, or was it Created?

Our comment on 6/18/06 was on the complexity of the brain, and the impossibility of it to evolve. The eye is probably the most complex of all, and this comment too is taken from Grant R. Jeffrey's book "Creation, Remarkable Evidence of God's Design."

"Consider the case of the human eye and ask yourself whether or not such a complex and intricate optical system could ever have developed through random chance mutation alone. When a baby is conceived in its mothers womb, the genetic DNA code governing the eye programs the baby's body to begin growing optic nerves simultaneously from both the optic center of the brain and from the eye. A million microscopic optic nerves begin growing from the eye through the flesh toward the optical section of the baby's brain. Simultaneously, a million optic nerves, with a protective sheath similar to fiber-optic cable, begin growing through the flesh towards the baby's eye. Each of these one million optic nerves must find and match up to its precise mate to enable vision to function perfectly.

We are generally impressed when the highway engineers are able to correctly align two thirty-foot-wide tunnels dug from opposite sides of a mountain to meet precisely in the center of the mountain. However, every day, Hundreds of thousands of children are born with the ability to see, their bodies having precisely aligned one million separate optic nerves from each eye to meet their matching optic-nerve endings growing out from the baby's brain. Anyone who thinks this miracle of design happens by chance probably still believes in Santa Claus. It astonishes the mind of anyone who begins to contemplate the scientific research that has been conducted on the eye's amazing construction and activity. The degree of complexity displayed in the construction of the various parts of the eye makes the evolutionary theory that it "evolved over millions of years by tiny chance mutations" an absolute impossibility.

To appreciate the complexity and sophistication of the design of the eye, we need to understand the function of the retina. The retina lines the back of the eye and acts as a type of film, receiving the actual image composed of light photons passing through the iris, cornea, and eye fluid. Your retina is thinner than paper, yet its tiny surface (only one inch square) contains 137 million light-sensitive cells. Approximately 95 percent of these cells are rods that can analyze black-and-white images, while the balance of approximately seven million cone cells analyze color images. Each of these millions of cells is separately connected to the optic nerve, which transmits the signal to your brain at approximately three hundred miles per hour. The millions of specialized cells in your eye can analyze more than one million messages a second, and then transmit the data to the brain.

The retina in your eye is the most light-sensitive object in the Universe. It is more sophisticated in its design than even the most powerful electron microscope or satellite spy camera. For example, the most advanced film available today can differentiate between a range of one thousand to one. However, recent experiments have confirmed that the retina of the human eye can easily differentiate and analyze a range of ten billion to one. Experiments have revealed that the retina can actually detect one single photon of light in a dark room, something far beyond the range of engineered optical instruments. Recently, scientists discovered that the specialized cells in the retina actually partially analyze the image in the eye before it is transmitted through the optic nerve to the brain. While the optical image initially received in the eye is upside-down, the complex cells in the retina corrects the image to right-side up within the eye before transmitting the image to the brain. These retina cells perform up to ten billion calculations per second in determining the nature of the image transmitted to the eye by light photons. No supercomputer on Earth is capable of matching these virtually instantaneous calculations.

If we were to attempt to duplicate the computing power of the human eye, we would have to build the world's most advanced computer with a single enormous silicon chip (usually the size of a dime) that would cover 10,000 cubic inches and contain billions of transistors and hundreds of miles of circuit traces. The retina is so small that it fills only 0.0003 inches of space. If we could ever build an extremely advanced device to mimic the human eye, the single enormous computer chip would weigh at least 100 pounds, in comparison to the human retina that weighs less than a gram. The retina operates with less than 0.0001 watts of electrical charge. To duplicate the retina's abilities, the imaginary computer would need to consume 300 watts of power. In other words the retina is 3,000,000 times more efficient in its power consumption.

Charles Darwin himself admitted that the intricate engineering displayed in the human eye was so specialized and complex that he could not begin to imagine how the eye might have developed through the evolutionary processes of natural selection. "To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree." Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, New York Avenel books, 1979, p. 217."

By George Konig
June 25, 2006

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